Special Issue on Nanjing Massacre (Part 2) March 23, 1996 -======================================================================-==== CND is a computer network-based news service run by volunteers. See trailer of this package for information about CND services and how to sub/unsub CND. All CND publications are copyrighted. Redistribution is hereby permitted provided that it is not for profit and with proper acknowledgement to CND. -======================================================================-==== ISSN 1024-9117 Table of Contents # of Lines -======================================================================-==== 1. Japanese Imperialism and the Massacre in Nanjing (Part 2): Brutal Killings Committed by the Japanese Invasion Force in the Safety Zone; Raping and Pillaging Committed by the Japanese in the Safety Zone; A People Who Will Never Submit; Appendix I: Glossary of Names and Terms (English to Pinyin); Appendix II: Further Reading on the Nanjing Massacre; Footnotes ........................................................ 981 -======================================================================-==== By: Gao Xingzu, Wu Shimin, Hu Yungong, and Cha Ruizhen (History Department, Nanjing University) English Translation By: Robert P. Gray (pgray@pro.net), Vancouver, Canada The original Chinese document was submitted to China News Digest by Yue Ren who abstracted, summarized, and input the Chinese text. See HXWZ ZK64 published on August 15, 1995. To view this document as a formatted homepage with photographs and more information, please visit http://www.cnd.org/njmassacre/njm-tran/ [Editor's Note: Mr. Robert Gray is a graduate student who got his M.A. in Chinese history from Harvard University. We thank him for his great efforts in translating this valuable document. See CND-Global GL96-039 for Part 1] ____ ____ ____ Translator's Introduction In 1960, the Japanese history section in the Department of History at Nanjing University organized a group of students to carry out an investigation into the Nanjing Massacre committed by the Japanese army beginning in December 1937. In 1962, based on extensive materials uncovered during this investigation, these scholars collectively wrote the book Japanese Imperialism and the Massacre in Nanjing (riben diguozhuyi zai nanjing de datusha). Initially, this book was labelled a classified document (neibu ziliao) and was not published openly. In 1979, a classified publication of the book was issued in China for internal circulation only. In 1995, a scholar from mainland China who had obtained and carried this publication to America made it available to China News Digest (CND) for publication. In August 1995, to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the end of WWII, CND published extracts from this rare piece of scholarship in the original Chinese. Subsequently, in March 1996, CND published this English translation. I would like to express my deepest gratitude to Mr. Yim Tse, Chinese librarian at the University of British Columbia Asian Library, without whom the present translation would not have been possible. His professional editing of the translation and tireless searching for original sources and Chinese and Japanese names went above and beyond the call of duty. It was a great honour and highly edifying experience to work with Mr. Tse on this translation. All footnotes and notes within square brackets in the following translation are supplementary notes written by the translator. All Japanese names (transliterated from Chinese by Yim Tse) are written with the surname first and the given name last. Pinyin romanization has been used throughout except in cases in which the Wade-Giles spelling is more familiar, such as "Yangtze" or "Kuomintang." The spelling "Nanking" rather than "Nanjing" is used in the text when referring to organizations in the 1930s which used that spelling in their names, such as "the University of Nanking." Responsibility for any errors in this translation, of course, rests entirely with me. Robert P. Gray (pgray@pro.net), Vancouver, Canada ____ ____ ____ ________________________________________________________ Brutal Killings Committed by the Japanese Invasion Force in the Safety Zone ________________________________________________________ As mentioned previously, when the Japanese were closing in on Nanjing, a group of Europeans and Americans who keenly supported charitable causes followed in the footsteps of Father Jacquinot de Besange, who had set up refugee camps in Shanghai, and on December 1st established the "International Committee [for the Nanking Safety Zone]" to raise the standard of neutrality and humanity. Using locations in all of the international embassies as well as the campus of the University of Nanking, they planned the safety zone. In total, twenty-five refugee hostels were established to house large groups of people in need. Among the more than 200,000 refugees housed in the hostels, inevitably some unarmed stragglers from the army scattered in amongst them. Of the refugees who came a short while later, a large number were packed into other residences within the safety zone. Thus, when the Japanese began their advance towards Nanjing, the population of this 3.86 square kilometer safety zone rapidly shot up to about 290,000. All of the houses were packed to the brim, and in the end many refugees were not able to gain entrance into the safety zone. But when the Japanese finally broke into Nanjing, not even the safety zone escaped the disaster. The day the Japanese occupation began, American and European members of the International Committee, led by the German Mr. John H.D. Rabe [Chairman of the International Committee for the Nanking Safety Zone], gathered together along Hanzhong Road, their national flags held high, to welcome [the Japanese]. At that time, they briefed the responsible Japanese military officials on the situation within the safety zone. They even led a group of Japanese military officers into the safety zone to take a rest and to view the area. When the reception was over, John Rabe and others escorted them outside. A group of twenty or so refugees were walking towards them, but as soon as they saw the Japanese officers, the refugees appeared very unsettled and immediately began looking for an escape route. The Japanese officers pulled out their revolvers and shot every last one of them. Later on, when some other refugees asked John Rabe and other [members of the International Committee for the Nanking Safety Zone] about the shooting, they defended the Japanese "guests" saying: "[At first, the Japanese] showed no hostility, though a few moments later they killed twenty refugees who were frightened by their presence and ran from them. For it seems to be the rule here, as it was in Shanghai in 1932, that anyone who runs must be shot or bayoneted."{18} One member of the International Committee wrote the following passage in a personal letter: At our staff conference that evening word came that soldiers were taking all 1,300 men in one of our camps near headquarters to shoot them. We knew there were a number of ex-soldiers among them, but Rabe had been promised by an officer that very afternoon that their lives would be spared. It was now all too obvious what they were going to do. The men were lined up and roped together in groups of about a hundred by soldiers with bayonets fixed; those who had hats [on] had them roughly torn off and thrown on the ground -- and then by the light of our headlights we watched them marched away to their doom. Not a whimper came from that entire throng.{19} The Japanese then stated their demands to the International Committee saying, "There are more than 20,000 Chinese soldiers hidden within the safety zone, and they must all be handed over." "One afternoon, at about five o'clock, the Japanese surrounded the Association for Natives of Wuxi Prefecture, located on Ninghai Road. More than 2,000 refugees were rounded up. The next morning, at about three or four o'clock, they were bound and led to a pond in the neighborhood of Jiangsu Road. The entire group, men and women, young and old, fell dead in a great spray of machine gunfire." "One afternoon, most of the twenty-five refugee hostels were surrounded by the Japanese who wanted to ferret out the Chinese soldiers hiding within. It was an extremely serious situation. The International Committee asked the Japanese committee member Yasumura Saburo to go out and negotiate [with the Japanese], but it was no use. A large number of people from each of the refugee areas were rounded up, bound, and taken away. Dozens of people were taken from the smaller hostels, while hundreds and even thousands of people were taken from the larger ones. In total, several thousand people were carted off to Wutai Mountain and massacred. Their dead bodies were doused with gasoline and set ablaze so no evidence of the crime would remain. But still the International Committee was unwilling to put pen to paper and issue a formal declaration of protest against such cruel mass murders."{20} ("A Foreigner's Eye Witness Account of the Atrocities Committed by the Japanese Army," taken from the private letters of a member of the International Committee.{21}) Hu Dequan, a worker at the University of Nanking, recalled the following incident: "One afternoon, several hundred Japanese suddenly showed up on the University of Nanking campus alleging that there were soldiers hidden in among the refugees. They wanted to search the place. The American imperialists{22} who were there suggested that those who were in fact soldiers should surrender themselves and said that they would guarantee the safety of those soldiers who turned themselves in. Finally, some of the people were forced to admit that they had served as soldiers, but requested to be spared punishment by the Japanese. The American imperialists took down their names and handed over more than 700 people to the Japanese. The next day at about four o'clock, these more than four (seven?){23} hundred people were divided into two groups. The first group was escorted outside of Hanxi Gate where they were murdered en masse. The second group was taken to a pond near the Department of Sericulture at the University of Nanking where they met their deaths in a hail of machine gun fire."{24} In addition, there were two workers, Du Renchang and Dai Damao, along with thirty or forty survivors of the massacre, who testified to the fact that the Americans handed these stragglers from the army over to the Japanese from the refugee camp at the University of Nanking. Moreover, Tao Xiufu, who lived in Nanjing at the time, also recalled the massacres which occurred within the safety zone: After several days, the rapes continued and the flames of the massacre burned even more fiercely. Each day, gun-toting soldiers carried out inspections of the residences in the safety zone. When one group left, another would take its place. In total, no less than several dozen inspections were carried out under the pretext of searching for missing soldiers. In fact, the Japanese only wanted to eliminate young men. At that time, twenty-eight men had already been taken from the room in which the author [Tao Xiufu] was staying. Suddenly, some other Japanese showed up. They saw that there were only three or four old men in their sixties and seventies in my room. But then one of them noticed that my beard was still dark, so he suspected that I was still only middle-aged. I was going to be forced to join the other troops. I got up, walked out of the room, and a soldier wearing a sword on his waist waved his hand in my direction. Fortunately, I was to be spared. He realized that I was already almost sixty years old. The following day, someone who had also escaped reported that the troops were divided into three groups. Each troop had about 300 men. They marched to a vacated area near Coal Harbor in Xiaguan [a neighborhood in Nanjing adjacent to the Yangtze River]. The Japanese fired their machine guns on the entire group of refugees, from the back to the front. But he was alert. Hearing the approaching gunfire, he threw himself under the corpses of the other men, and in so doing, managed to avoid death. After the massacre was completed and the Japanese soldiers had vacated the scene, he tore off his bloodied clothing and fled. He managed to spirit himself back into the safety zone where he recounted the whole incident, describing the scene in vivid detail and causing everyone to tremble with fear. Even after the Japanese had exterminated all the young men, the appetite of the Nakajima Detachment{25} was not yet satisfied. So a scheme for applying for a [Nanjing] settler's identification pass was devised. There was an accomplice of the Japanese, a [Chinese] traitor with the surname Zhan, who had the intention of exterminating his fellow countrymen and who secretly considered the Japanese to be his godfather. The day before issuing the passes, he borrowed a vast square on Shanghai Road. The refugees who were summoned there gathered around like an encircling wall. Zhan, accompanied by a Japanese, drove into the square in a vehicle on the back of which stood a table as tall as a lectern. He claimed that what he was to do next would make him a savior of the refugees. From this day forward, those who applied for settler's identification passes were required to provide guarantors. Those without guarantors, people living on their own, or people forced to move to Nanjing to do forced labor, would immediately be separated from the crowd to form another group. The Japanese would send them back to their hometowns. This proclamation was hailed as a life-saving act. The refugees in the crowd heard his words and rushed over to the area which he had designated. After repeated urgings, about 2,000 people gathered in the designated area. When his speech was concluded, the Japanese carted away all of these 2,000 people. Later on it was learned that the Japanese had killed this entire group of refugees. (Tao Xiufu, "A Comprehensive Account of the Catastrophe Brought upon the Capital by the Japanese," cited in, "Documents on Nanjing," Number 4, Nanjing Gazetteer Bureau, published January 1947.) Prior to the Japanese occupation of Nanjing, the foreigners in charge of the affairs of the safety zone worried that Chinese soldiers who did not have time to retreat would lay their lives on the line to stand up to the Japanese, endangering the lives of the non-Chinese. Thus, in order to guarantee their safety, [the foreigners] persuaded the soldiers to hand over their weapons and hide in the safety zone. As it turned out, the Japanese entered the safety zone and wantonly seized and murdered even those people who were unarmed. As a result, the foreigners in charge of the safety zone felt extremely embarrassed and addressed the refugees saying: "It wasn't we who betrayed the refugees. It's the Japanese who are untrustworthy. What could we possibly have done about it?" Other times, they would express their deep regret saying: "We should not say that the Japanese will guarantee their (meaning the Chinese soldiers who had surrendered their weapons) lives! Originally we believed the Japanese authorities would keep their word and truly restore order. We never imagined they would display such uncivilized behavior which surpasses anything imaginable by any modern, civilized human being." ("A Foreigner's Eyewitness Account of the Atrocities Committed by the Japanese Army," pp.19-21.{26}) No matter how many refugee lives were sacrificed, the foreigners within the safety zone were all safe. A telegram from the time serves as proof of this point: Wilbur, National Committee YMCA, Shanghai: All foreigners [in] Nanking safe and well. Please inform interested parties. (Cited in: "A Foreigner's Eyewitness Account of the Atrocities Committed by the Japanese Army," p.19.{27}) Not only were the foreigners unharmed, but amidst the echoing sounds of gunfire as the Japanese carried out their massacre, the foreigners entertained themselves with wine, song, and dance, celebrated Christmas, and ate their fill of roast beef, roast duck, sweet potatoes, and various other fresh food. When they had exhausted their appetites for pleasure they went home.{28} (Ibid, p.35.) ______________________________ Raping and Pillaging Committed by the Japanese in the Safety Zone ______________________________ Ginling College{29} was the largest refugee hostel and it only housed women and children. At first, it housed only 3,000 people. The International Committee declared that they were doing their level best to protect refugee women and children. Since the hostel at Ginling College was the largest one, they housed as many women and children there as they could manage. Inside the hostel complex they set up all sorts of make-shift shops and stores which stocked all the daily necessities of life. To find refuge in this hostel meant not only complete security, but also a standard of living in which all of one's needs were met. After the above declarations from the International Committee were made known, the number of refugees [who fled to this hostel] immediately soared to 9,000. The night before Nanjing fell to the Japanese, its population had further increased to more than 20,000. But even such a large hostel was unable to fulfill its mandate to protect the refugees. One night, with the help of some Chinese traitors, the Japanese soldiers quietly took down the bamboo fence on the south side of the Ginling College hostel allowing several hundred monstrous Japanese officers and soldiers to storm in and kidnap over 100 young women. This immediately aroused the rage of all the other refugees. They appointed a representative to appeal to Dr. Lewis S.C. Smythe, an American member of the International Committee, Dr. M.S. Bates, the Secretary of the International Committee{30}, and Fei Wusheng, to go and inquire into the whereabouts of the women and negotiate on their behalf. In the end, they asked the Japanese member of the Committee, Yasumura Saburo, to carry out an investigation into the matter. According to Yasumura's report, the soldiers who tied up and kidnapped the women were from the Kuroda Detachment.{31} The lives of the women, he said, were not in danger. Several days later, these kidnapped women were subjected to gang rapes committed by Japanese soldiers and officers which went on for several days and nights. After the Japanese were done with the women they trucked them back to the hostel. Some of the young girls who had undergone particularly severe rapings survived for only a few days after being returned. Some women contracted venereal diseases from which they suffered unbearable pain. Others suffered from extreme embarrassment and shame and allowed themselves to wither away to nothingness. Many women were driven to suicide. The women of the refugee hostel again elected a representative to lodge a protest against the Japanese and to secure a promise that this sort of activity would not happen again. They also wanted the International Committee to live up to its promise to protect the refugee women. But the International Committee ignored their pleas and neither protested nor attempted to negotiate with the Japanese. From this time forward, the Japanese became more daring even to the point of considering the refugee hostels to be their own personal "pleasure palaces." They brazenly drove their trucks straight into the University of Nanking and Ginling College and carried out rapes and looting on the spot. In one incident, Japanese soldiers barged into the International Committee's offices and forced an office worker out of the way so they could commit a rape right there in broad daylight. ("A Foreigner's Eyewitness Account of the Atrocities Committed by the Japanese Army," p.204.{32}) Frequently, the Japanese would come in groups during the evening, charge into several refugee hostels, and commit gang rapes. While the victims moaned, cursed, and vented their fury, those fortunate ones who were spared were also becoming filled with anger and their bitterness simply could not be contained. The whole campus sank into a state of seething rage. Some of the women were killed as a result of their attempted resistance, but the International Committee was helpless to do anything. Later on, as long as there were women inside, the Japanese soldiers would enter the refugee hostels at will. Offices, dormitories, and even hallways became venues for the Japanese to carry out their brutal rapes. Only in a few special cases did the International Committee negotiate with the Japanese. For instance, one day the Japanese charged into a refugee hostel and raped the wives of a Chinese minister, a professor, and an office worker from the Y.M.C.A. The International Committee immediately lodged an official letter of protest with the Japanese command. The letter pointed out that the women who were raped included the spouses of a high-level Chinese official and that of a minister. These victims were, as a rule, women of impeccable character who would guard their chastity with their lives and would never submit even when threatened with brutal rape. They wanted to secure a promise from the Japanese command that, in the future, no similar incidents would be permitted. (See, "A Foreigner's Eyewitness Account of the Atrocities Committed by the Japanese Army," appendix.{33}) Having obtained an apology and a promise that it would never happen again, the International Committee ceased its protests. From this time forward, the Japanese dared not rape Chinese women from the Y.M.C.A. or foreign women in the safety zone. The International Committee left behind more than 100 official documents, letters, and other papers, the vast majority of which record in detail the raping and pillaging carried out by the Japanese in the safety zone. For example{34}: "On the night of December 15th, seven Japanese soldiers entered the University of Nanking Library building and took seven Chinese women refugees, three of whom were raped on the spot."{35} On that same evening, "a number of Japanese soldiers entered the University of Nanking buildings at Tao Yuan and raped thirty women on the spot, some by six men."{36} "On December 18, refugee Home at Military College reports: On the 16th two hundred men{37} were taken away and only five returned; on the 17th twenty-six men were taken away; on the 18th, thirty men were taken away."{38} "On December 21st. [sic] This afternoon Headquarters has about one hundred more women living in this immediate neighborhood who have been raped since last night and have come to the place for protection."{39} "On December 18 about 5 p.m. some ten soldiers entered and took all the bedding and other belongings of 100 refugees and sanitary staff. . ."{40} "Reported on December 18 -- there are about 540 refugees crowded in Nos. 83 and 85 on Canton Road. Since the 13th instant [sic] up to the 17th those houses have been searched and robbed many times a day by Japanese soldiers in groups of three to five. Today the soldiers are looting the places mentioned above continuously."{41} (See, "A Foreigner's Eyewitness Account of the Atrocities Committed by the Japanese Army," appendix.) Incidents such as these are too numerous to be comprehensively listed here. According to the testimony of a former refugee, Huang Wenkui, offered during an investigative interview on February 17th, 1960, about fifty percent of the women in his neighborhood were raped by the Japanese at one time or another. And according to a February 20th, 1938 report in the Dagong Daily (Wuhan edition), at Ginling College, which was located in the safety zone, "about half of the female population suffered through rapes." The situation outside of the safety zone was even more frightful. On January 28th, Japanese soldiers forced some refugees out of the safety zone. "But in the middle of the night a large group of the women came back to the safety zone crying," proving that there was an even more serious problem with rape in the areas outside of the safety zone. ______________________________ A People Who Will Never Submit ______________________________ In those dark days, with savage beasts running amok in the city, the people of Nanjing engaged in a life and death struggle with the frenzied Japanese and displayed the unyielding spirit of the Chinese race. In a situation in which weapons were not available, the people of Nanjing undertook to fight against the Japanese with their bare hands. The case of the driver Liang Zhicheng is a typical example. On the morning of December 17th, [1937], the Japanese came and broke down the front door of Liang Zhicheng's house and carried him away. When the Japanese officers discovered he was a driver, they ordered him to drive a truck filled with machine gun bullets to Xiaguan. Liang decided there was simply no way he could transport bullets which would be used to shoot down his fellow countrymen. So when he was pushed into the truck and a Japanese officer pointed a gun at him and ordered him to drive, disregarding the threat to his life, he knocked the officer to the ground. Liang rushed at the Japanese officer with all his might and seized his throat with both hands. When the Japanese soldiers in the truck saw what was going on, they jumped down off the truck and began to slash away at Liang Zhicheng with their long knives. Meanwhile, the Japanese officer scrambled to get up, grabbed his revolver, and shot Liang Zhicheng. Liang fell down and passed out in a pool of blood. By the afternoon, Liang had regained consciousness so he struggled to crawl back to his house. But by dawn of the next day, Liang Zhicheng realized that he was not long for this world. He clenched his teeth and said to his elder sister, "Tell my friends that I was murdered by the Japanese. You must tell everyone that, right up until my death, not once did I lift a finger to help the Japanese!" (See Xinhua Daily, 3 March 1951) According to the recollections of Wu Haoyu and Mao Delin of the University of Nanking, in 1938 there was a Chinese kitchen worker in the Japanese embassy who harbored an immense hatred towards the Japanese. When the ambassador was hosting a party one evening, this man slipped poison into the wine, killing several Japanese. Just before leaving, this kitchen worker left a note saying that it was he who poisoned the wine and that no one else was involved. On December 19th, 1937, a fine rain was falling. Li Xiuying, the wife of Chen Haoran (who, after 1949, joined the staff of the Nanjing Telecommunications Bureau, long-distance telephone section), was pregnant with a seven month old baby. She fled to the refugee hostel at Wutai Mountain and hid in the cellar of a schoolhouse run by an American. More than 100 female compatriots were already packed into this cellar. They fully assumed that the cellar would be safe for the time being. That morning, however, six Japanese soldiers wielding bayonets viciously broke into the schoolhouse. They forced the women out of the cellar and proceeded to humiliate them in various ways. Li Xiuying was unwilling to tolerate being humiliated by the Japanese soldiers and steeled herself to lay down her life resisting them. When a soldier stretched out his claws to take hold of her, she smashed her head against the wall. The fresh blood flowed out and she lost consciousness. But the treacherous Japanese soldiers were still unwilling to let the woman be. Only after brutally kicking her did they finally flee the scene. When Li Xiuying regained consciousness, her fellow refugees hurried her back inside. But soon after, three more Japanese soldiers showed up. Although Li Xiuying had sustained serious injuries, she simply could not hold her intense anger inside. She struggled to get up and charged towards the Japanese soldiers. Grabbing the bayonet at one soldier's waist, she stabbed him with all her might, but one of the other Japanese soldiers had already seized her hand. The soldiers proceeded to stab in a wild frenzy at her face, body, legs, and stomach. Li Xiuying was transformed into a bloodied mass of flesh, and again she passed out. After a while, she regained consciousness once again, but the baby had miscarried. In the end, Li Xiuying survived, but more than thirty scars could still be seen distinctly on her body. (See, Xinhua Daily, 23 February 1951) There were many other women besides Li Xiuying who, although they sacrificed their lives in the struggle against the Japanese, will live on forever in the hearts and minds of the Chinese people. For example, outside of Zhonghua Gate there was a Japanese train which was departing from Zhonghua Gate Train Station. When the train was drawing near Ban Bridge, a woman limped out onto the tracks and walked towards the train. There was no time to apply the brakes. The moment the locomotive hit the woman there was a great explosion throwing the train off the tracks and killing several hundred Japanese. It is said that the woman's family had been completely exterminated by the Japanese and that she had sworn to avenge their deaths. So this woman joined the guerrillas, tied sticks of dynamite all over her body, and perished with her Japanese foes. (See, Bai Wu, Contemporary Nanjing, published 20 November 1938) There was a female teacher at Bafuqiao Primary School whom the Japanese attempted to rape on five separate occasions. Sometime afterwards, she managed to obtain a gun which she hid under her bed. When the Japanese showed up again, she killed five of them, one after the other. In the end, she calmly allowed herself to be executed. (See, Xinhua Daily, 26 February 1951) Ma San and his wife lived on Baoshan Road in Xiaguan. When a Japanese soldier came by to rape her, Ma San's wife plied him with wine and got him drunk. Then, with the help of Ma San and their neighbors, she used a large watermelon knife to kill the soldier. They secreted the body away to Wild Lotus Root Pond where they gave it a sunken burial. (See Xinhua Daily, 2 March 1951) Liu Rouyuan, a man who fled from occupied Nanjing, wrote a document entitled, "A Record of the Miserable Conditions in the Occupied Areas." In his account, Liu tells of one time in which three Japanese soldiers forced three women to return with them to their barracks. Two of the women were shouting wildly and crying for help. The other woman realized that she had no chance to escape death, so she requested that the other two women be set free and offered herself to "comfort" the Japanese men. After the Japanese soldiers had released the two screaming women and they had walked to the Refugee Relief Society, this female compatriot, who never even left her name, grabbed a bayonet from the Japanese soldier and stabbed herself in the neck. Bleeding profusely, the woman fell to the ground. Another woman was subjected to various harassment when the Japanese broke into her home. On several previous occasions when this had occurred, the woman relied on her quick wit to escape from the clutches of the Japanese. On this particular day when the Japanese showed up at her house, she calmly took up her brush and wrote in big Chinese characters on a piece of paper, "Japanese soldiers are animals." When she had finished writing, she quietly put down the brush. Seeing the note, the Japanese soldiers were incensed and proceeded to riddle the woman with bullets. On the night before the fall of Nanjing, a Chinese tank was disabled by the Japanese and left behind on the highway during a skirmish at Square Mountain. Two warriors inside [the tank] swore to defend the vehicle to the death. They lay in ambush inside the tank awaiting an opportunity to attack the enemy. At about four o'clock in the afternoon, a large battalion of foot soldiers passed by the vehicle. The two warriors inside quietly took up their machine guns, poked them out of the front and back of the tank's turret, and sprung their ambush by firing into the crowds of Japanese. Dozens of Japanese soldiers were killed or wounded. When the Japanese were entering the vicinity of Nanjing, "there were three companies of [Chinese] soldiers . . . dispatched to cross over the Sancha River, located three miles outside of the city, to fight this large contingent of advancing Japanese soldiers. But because the number of soldiers on the two sides was so unequal, all three [Chinese] companies were sacrificed and only one man from the entire group survived. ("A Foreigner's Eyewitness Account of the Atrocities Committed by the Japanese Army," p.16.{42}) In spite of her advanced age, Li Boqian's mother, who lived near Zhonghua Gate, refused to help guide the Japanese and was killed as a result. One day, in the square located at the end of New Street, a wireless radio was discovered broadcasting news reports on our war of resistance against the Japanese. The broadcasts continued for quite a while before it was dismantled by the Japanese. Another day, Chinese planes appeared in the skies over Nanjing. In order to direct the planes to drop their bombs on the Japanese military arsenal located near the Judicial Yuan buildings, an anonymous hero stood behind these buildings frantically waving a bamboo pole with a bed sheet attached to it. This brave hero was willing to sacrifice his life and perish together with his enemy. But no bombs were dropped from the plane and this anonymous martyr was seized by the Japanese and, sadly, was killed. (Contemporary Nanjing) In 1939, Doctor Beizi{43} of the International Red Cross Committee of Nanking wrote a report on the pain and suffering of the people in the city. The report describes how the Japanese would break into people's houses in the middle of the night. "After several cases of Japanese soldiers disappearing without a trace, they no longer dared to disturb people under the cover of night." (Nanjing Historical Archives, number 228, file 10.) On January 14th, 1943, not long after the Japanese had imposed a curfew, a bomb was detonated in front of the New Asia Dance Hall killing four Japanese. All of these incidents of rebellion occurred spontaneously and stand as a solid testimony that the burning, killing, raping, and plundering committed by the Japanese could not make the Chinese people submit. ____________________________________________________________ Appendix I Glossary of Names and Terms (English to Pinyin) English ..... Pinyin Bates, Dr. M.S. ..... Beizi (also Beizi) Big Bell New Village ..... Dazhongxin cun Big Bell Pavilion ..... Dazhong ting Big Stone Bridge Street ..... Dashiqiao jie Coal Harbor ..... Meitan gang Central Hospital ..... Zhongyang yiyuan Central University ..... Zhongyang daxue Chien Ying Hsiang Road ..... Jianyinxiang de Besange, Father Jacquinot ..... Rao shenfu Double Dragon Lane ..... Shuanglong xiang Dragon Pond ..... Long tan Drum Tower ..... Gu lou Ginling College ..... Jinling nuzi wenli xueyuan Goddess of Mercy Gate ..... Guanyin men International Committee for the Nanking Safety Zone ..... Guoji weiyuanhui International Military Tribunal for Far East ..... Yuandong guoji junshi fating Iron Tube Lane ..... Tieguan xiang Japan Advertiser ..... Riben guangxuan bao Kanbayashi Military Police Battalion ..... Shanglin xianbingdui Katagiri Detachment ..... Piantong budui Kuroda Detachment ..... Heitian budui Mainichi Shinbun ..... Meiri xinwen Matsui Iwane ..... Songjing Shigen Military Commission of KMT Political Dept. ..... Guomindang junshi weiyuanhui zhengzhibu Misty Flower Gate ..... Yuhua men Misty Flower Terrace ..... Yuhua tai Mukai Toshiaki ..... Xiangjing Minming Muto ..... Wu Teng Nakajima Detachment ..... Zhongdao budui Nanjing Hangzhou Railway ..... Ningji xian New Asia Dance Hall ..... Xinya wuchang New Street ..... Xin jie Nichinichi Shinbun ..... Riri xinwen Noda Takeshi ..... Yetian Yi Peace Gate ..... Heping men Pearl River Road ..... Zhujiang lu Phoenix Street ..... Fenghuang jie Precious Pagoda Bridge ..... Baota qiao Purple (aka Purple) Gold Mountain ..... Zijin shan Rabe, John H.D. ..... Leibo Refugee Relief Society ..... Nanmin jiuqihui Shanghai Nanjing railway ..... Huning xian Sheepskin Lane ..... Yangpi xiang Smythe, Dr. Lewis S.C. ..... Shimisi Square Mountain ..... Fang shan Straw Sandals Gorge ..... Caoxie xia Stone Grandmother Lane ..... Shipopo xiang Sugar Mill Bridge ..... Tangfang qiao Swallow Cliff ..... Yanzi ji Tani Hisao ..... Gu Shoufu Tiger Mountain ..... Laohu shan Timperley, Harold John ..... Tianbolie University of Nanking ..... Jinling daxue West Water Gate ..... Shuixi men Wild Lotus Root Pond ..... Yeou tang Yamamoto Military Police Battalion ..... Shanben xianbingdui Yasumura Saburo ..... Ancun Sanlang Yellow Mud Pond ..... Huangni tang Y.M.C.A ..... Qingnianhui ____________________________________________________________ Appendix II Further Reading on the Nanjing Massacre in English, Japanese, and Chinese Books in English About the Nanjing Massacre Hsu, Shuhsi, The War Conduct of the Japanese, Hankou, China: Kelly and Walsh Ltd., 1938. Smythe, Lewis Strong Casey, War Damage in the Nanking Area, December 1937 to March 1938. (Urban and Rural Surveys, by Dr. Lewis Strong Casey Smythe and assistants, on behalf of the Nanjing International Relief Committee, compiled June 1938), Shanghai, China: Mercury Press, 1938. Timperley, Harold John, What War Means: The Japanese Terror in China. A Documentary Record, London, England: Victor Gollancz Ltd., 1938. -----, Japanese Terror in China, New York, N.Y.: Modern Age Books, 1938. Books in Japanese About the Nanjing Massacre Hora, Tomio, Nankin daigyakusatsu (Nanjing Massacre), Tokyo: Gendaishi shuppan kai, 1975. -----, Nitchu Senso Nankin daizangyaku jiken shiryoshu (Sources on the Nanjing Massacre During the Sino-Japanese Conflict), Tokyo: Aoki shoten, 1985. Nankin daigyakusatsu: Nihonjin e no kokuhatsu (Nanjing Massacre: A Protest to the Japanese), Osaka: Toho shuppan, 1992. Yoshida, Yutaka, Tenno no guntai to Nankin Jiken (The Japanese Emperor's Army and the Nanjing Incident), Tokyo: Aoki shoten, 1985. Books in Chinese About the Nanjing Massacre Nanjing datusha tuzheng (An Illustrated Account of the Nanjing Massacre), Changchun: Jilin renmin chubanshe, 1995. Qinhua rijun nanjing datusha shiliao (A True Record of the Nanjing Massacre Committed by the Invading Japanese Army), Nanjing: Jiangsu guji chubanshe, 1985. Timperley, Harold John (Tianbolie), Wairen muduzhong zhi rijun baoxing (A Foreigner's Eyewitness Account of the Atrocities Committed by the Japanese Army), Hankou (1949 yihoude Wuhan): Guomin chubanshe, 1938. -----, Wairen muduzhong zhi rijun baoxing (A Foreigner's Eyewitness Account of the Atrocities Committed by the Japanese Army), Nanchang: Jiangxi renmin chubanshe, 1986. Xue ji (Sacrificial Blood), Beijing: Zhongguo renshi chubanshe, 1994. ____________________________________________________________ FOOTNOTES: {1} The group referred to here is the International Committee for the Nanking Safety Zone. Established in November 1937 by a group of foreigners in Nanjing, the International Committee hoped to establish a safety zone in the city in anticipation of the imminent Japanese occupation. In doing so, the International Committee followed in the footsteps of Father Jacquinot de Besange who had already established a safety zone protecting 250,000 refugees in the devastated areas of southern Shanghai. The following is the membership list of the International Committee for the Nanking Safety Zone. (This list is taken from Timperley, The Japanese Terror in China (London, 1938), Appendix D. All references to Timperley, The Japanese Terror in China in the present translation refer to the London edition published in 1938. The American edition of this book is paginated slightly differently. For full bibliographic references to both editions of the book, as well as the Chinese translation, please refer to the appendix.) Mr. John H.D. Rabe (Chairman) ..... German Dr. Lewis S.C. Smythe (Secretary) ..... American Mr. P.H. Munro-Faure ..... British Rev. John Magee ..... American Mr. P.R. Shields ..... British Mr. J.M. Hanson ..... Danish Mr. G. Schultze-Pantin ..... German Mr. Ivor Mackay ..... British Mr. J.V. Pickering ..... American Mr. Eduard Sperling ..... German Dr. M.S. Bates ..... American Rev. W.P. Mills ..... American Mr. J. Lean ..... British Dr. C.S. Trimmer ..... American Mr. Charles Riggs ..... American {2} In Timperley, The Japanese Terror in China, this mountain is called "Purple Mountain," although it is evident that this mountain and the place name which the present translator has translated as "Purple Gold Mountain" (Zijin shan) refer to same place. {3} A record of this tribunal is available in twenty-two volumes. See: R. John Pritchard, Sonia Zaide, & Donald Cameron Watt, The Tokyo War Crimes Trial: The Complete Transcripts of the Proceedings of the International Military Tribunal for the Far East in Twenty-two Volumes, New York, N.Y.: Garland Publishers, 1981. {4} Appendix F of J.H. Timperley, The Japanese Terror in China (see appendix for full bibliographic reference) contains two December 1937 reports published in the Japan Advertiser, an American-owned and edited English-language daily newspaper in Tokyo, concerning this "killing competition." The following text is excerpted from one of these reports published on 14 December 1937. "The winner of the competition between Sub-Lieutenant Toshiaki Mukai and Sub-Lieutenant Iwao Noda [Noda Takeshi ia also referred to as Noda Iwao in this and several other sources.] to see who would be the first to kill 100 Chinese with his Yamato sword has not been decided, the Nichi Nichi reports from the slopes of Purple Gold Mountain, outside Nanking. . . . Mukai's blade was slightly damaged in the competition. He explained that this was the result of cutting a Chinese in half, helmet and all. The contest was "fun," he declared, and he thought it a good thing that both men had gone over the 100 mark without knowing that the other had done so." (See, Timperley, The Japanese Terror in China (London, 1938), p.285) {5} The old romanization "Nanking" rather than the pinyin romanization "Nanjing" is used in the present translation when referring to organizations which existed at the time and used the old spelling. {6} In the Chinese document, Timperley's book is referred to as Wairen muduzhong zhi rijun baoxing, which the present translator has translated as A Foreigner's Eyewitness Account of the Atrocities Committed by the Japanese Army. The full title of the original English edition of the book is What War Means: The Japanese Terror in China. A Documentary Record. Full bibliographic citations of both the original English edition and the Chinese translation can be found in the appendix at the end of the present paper. {7} As the original English citations were readily available, in the section which follows and for all other citations from Timperley's book in the present translation, quotations are drawn directly from the original English text. Thus, the following excerpts are direct quotations from Appendix A of Timperley, The Japanese Terror in China (London 1938). The citations in the following section were written during the Nanjing massacre, often under extremely strained circumstances, which accounts for the often unpolished grammar. J. H. Timperley was China correspondent for the Manchester Guardian in the 1930s. He was stationed in Nanjing when the Japanese army invaded the city and witnessed and reported on many of the atrocities. He compiled and edited The Japanese Terror in China, a documentary account of the atrocities committed by the Japanese army, in 1938, just months after the Japanese initially invaded the city. Many thanks to Yim Tse, Chinese Librarian at the U.B.C. Asian Library, who located this book. {8} During the 1930s, this road was known as Chien Ying Hsiang Road. The name of the road, however, is romanized into pinyin as "Jianyin xiang." The translator found the original name of the road in Timperley, The Japanese Terror in China (London, 1938), p.174. {9} Timperley, The Japanese Terror in China (London, 1938), p.174. {10} Timperley, The Japanese Terror in China (London, 1938), p.174. The Chinese authors did not translate the remaining lines of this account, perhaps because of the favorable light it sheds upon Americans in Nanjing who were trying to aid the refugees. The rest of the account reads as follows: "This created a panic in the area and hundreds of women moved into the Ginling College campus yesterday. Consequently, three American men spent the night at Ginling College last night to protect the 3,000 women and children in the compound." {11} Timperley, The Japanese Terror in China (London, 1938), p.176. {12} Timperley, The Japanese Terror in China (London, 1938), p.176. Note that this passage is omitted in the American edition of Timperley's book. {13} Timperley, The Japanese Terror in China (London, 1938), pp.177-78. {14} Timperley, The Japanese Terror in China (London, 1938), p.180. {15} Note that the page numbers listed for each quotation are from the London edition of Timperley's book The Japanese Terror in China. The American edition of the same book is paginated slightly differently. {16} Jinling Daxue is the Chinese name of the school commonly known in English as the University of Nanking. Founded circa 1890, the University of Nanking was an American missionary institution and, during the Nanjing massacre, was located within the Nanjing safety zone frequently referred to within the present document. During the Japanese occupation of the city, 30,000 refugees were housed in the make-shift refugee hostile at the University of Nanking. {17} According to the traditional Chinese view, a person's age is dated from conception rather than from birth. {18} The Chinese document asserts that the preceding words were comments made to refugees who were inquiring into the shooting while speaking with John Rabe, the German chairman of the International Committee, and others. The translator, however, found the original source of these comments in a personal letter written by an unnamed American member of the International Committee for the Nanking Safety Zone to friends in Shanghai. Thus, although the citation was translated accurately by the Chinese authors, the comment was not made in a conversation with refugees. Moreover, as the context of the original citation shows, the person who made these comments was not attempting to defend the actions of the Japanese. The original letter from which the excerpt in question is drawn can be found in Timperley, The Japanese Terror in China (London, 1938), p.28. {19} Timperley, The Japanese Terror in China (London, 1938), p.32. {20} Contrary to this accusation, the International Committee members actually took painstaking measures to record and submit incidents of murder, rape, and other assorted atrocities directly to the Japanese authorities. For an extensive list of atrocities reported to the Japanese authorities by the International Committee and for other evidence of the wide-ranging efforts of the International Committee to protect the refugees, see the appendices of Timperley, The Japanese Terror in China (London, 1938). The members of the International Committee for the Nanking Safety Zone were in an extremely precarious position. Against the advice of officials from their governments, these foreigners elected to stay in Nanjing while, as the Japanese approached, many Chinese were themselves fleeing the city. The foreigners stayed in Nanjing in direct defiance of the Japanese military. As one American member of the International Committee wrote, "[T]he Japanese Army is anything but pleased at our being here after having advised all foreigners to get out. They wanted no observers." (Timperley, p. 21) The Japanese were more reluctant to harm the foreigners in Nanjing, so they were able to take actions to protect the Chinese refugees which Chinese themselves would have been unable to do. John Rabe, the Chairman of the International Committee for the Nanking Safety Zone, had special credentials which gave him even more bargaining power with the Japanese, as is illustrated by the following comment from one International Committee member. "Rabe did not dare to leave his house as Japanese soldiers come over his wall many times a day. He always makes them leave by the same way they come instead of by the gate, and when any of them object he thrusts his Nazi armband in their face and points to his Nazi decoration, the highest in the country, and asks them if they know what that means. It always works!" (Timperley, p.43.) Another foreigner involved in relief activities in Nanjing during the massacre made the following observations: "[We] have gained considerably . . . by the fact that the main figures of the enterprise have been Germans of the Anti-Comintern Pact and Americans to be appeased after the barbarous attacks on American ships. [On 12 December 1937, the American gunboat U.S.S. Panay was bombed and sunk by Japanese airplanes about twenty-five miles from Nanjing up the Yangtze River. When the Japanese entered Nanjing a few days later they wanted to avoid further antagonizing the Americans. Thus, the Japanese treated the Americans in Nanjing better than other foreigners.] The International Committee has been a great help, with a story little short of miraculous. Three Germans have done splendidly, and I'd almost wear a Nazi badge to keep fellowship with them. . . . Naturally there has been considerable Chinese aid and co-operation from the beginning. . . . Yet at some stages nothing could move, not even one truck of rice, without the actual presence of a foreigner willing to stand up to a gun when necessary. We have taken some big risks and some heavy wallops (literally as well as figuratively), but have been allowed to get away with far more than the situation seems to permit. We have blocked many robberies, persuaded or bluffed many contingents of soldiers away from rape and intended rape, besides all the general work of feeding, sheltering, negotiation, protecting and protesting after sticking our eyes and noses into everything that has gone on. It is no wonder that a Japanese embassy officer told us the generals were angry at having to complete their occupation under the eyes of neutral observers. . . . Sometimes we have failed cold, but the percentage of success is still big enough to justify considerable effort." (Timperley, pp.62-63.) {21} The Chinese authors did not give a precise location for this citation from Timperley's book. Although many similar incidents are recounted by Timperley, the translator was unable to find this specific citation in either edition of the book. {22} The use of the term "American imperialists" may be explained by the fact that the original Chinese document was written in China during the 1960s, an era during which anti-American sentiments prevailed. Furthermore, the Americans referred to were from the University of Nanking, an American-funded missionary institution. {23} The original Chinese authors noted this numerical discrepancy in Mr. Hu's account. {24} The Chinese document does not give a citation for this passage. {25} For a partial list of the Japanese army units involved in the capture of Nanjing (as well as other cities on the Yangtze Delta) see Appendix E of Timperley, The Japanese Terror in China (London 1938). {26} The translator was unable to locate the passage cited here in either edition of Timperley's book. {27} Timperley, The Japanese Terror in China (London, 1938), pp.30-31. {28} The Chinese authors use this account of a Christmas dinner (December 25, 1937) to argue that the foreigners in Nanjing were living in luxury and ignoring the massacre of Chinese, an accusation not supported by the facts. The authors culled this information (quoted in its original context below) from a paragraph in Timperley, The Japanese Terror in China. Not only does the original paragraph show that there were also two Chinese women at this so-called foreigners' dinner, but also that the people at this gathering answered four calls for help from refugees during this one meal alone. "Christmas Day. . . . [C]onditions . . . seem slightly better. There were crowds on the streets with quite a number of stalls selling things. But at tiffin [Brit. lunch] time, while we were sitting at roast goose, with Miss Vautrin, Miss Bauer, Miss Blanche Wu [Chinese instructor of Biology at Ginling College], and Miss Pearl Bromley Wu [adopted Chinese daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Charles L. Bromley] as our guests, we had to answer three calls for help and then turn soldiers out of Fenn's [an American from the University of Nanking] and the Chinese faculty house and the Sericulture building." (Timperley, p.43.) {29} Ginling College (Jinling nuzi wenli xueyuan.) was originally known as Ginling Women's College of Arts and Sciences between its founding in 1915 until 1930. Ginling was a missionary school run by American missionaries in China. The school was originally established both to provide higher education for Chinese women as well as to train teachers. Ginling College was the sister school of Smith College in the United States. {30} Actually, Dr. Lewis S.C. Smythe was the Secretary of the International Committee for the Nanking Safety Zone. Dr. M.S. Bates was an American member of the International Committee, but was not the Secretary. {31} For a list of the Japanese military units that participated in the capture and occupation of Nanjing as well as the capture of other cities on the Yangtze Delta, see Appendix E of Timperley, The Japanese Terror in China (London, 1938). {32} The translator was unable to locate the passage cited here in either edition of this book. {33} The translator was unable to locate the passage cited here in either edition of this book. {34} The following passages, cited from the original English source, were written on the spot in the Nanjing safety zone under extremely adverse conditions, hence the often broken grammar. {35} Timperley, The Japanese Terror in China (London, 1938), p.175. {36} Timperley, The Japanese Terror in China (London, 1938), p.176. {37} In the Chinese text, this word is mistakenly translated as "women." The original source is clear in stating that this incident solely involved men. {38} Timperley, The Japanese Terror in China (London, 1938), p.181. {39} Timperley, The Japanese Terror in China (London, 1938), p.188. {40} Timperley, The Japanese Terror in China (London, 1938), p.180. {41} Timperley, The Japanese Terror in China (London, 1938), p.182. {42} The translator was unable to locate the passage cited here in either edition of this book. {43} The Chinese characters in the romanization of this name indicate that he or she was undoubtedly a non-Chinese. Looking at the names of all the members of the International Red Cross Committee of Nanking, it is reasonable to conclude that the person referred to here was Dr. M.S. Bates, an American from the University of Nanking who was a member of both the International Committee for the Nanking Safety Zone and the International Red Cross Committee of Nanking. The doubt arises from the fact that the translator found two different sets of Chinese characters ("Beizi" and "Beizhi") to describe what sounds like Bates' name. (See, Timperley, The Japanese Terror in China, London, 1938, appendix D.)